The battles of Marathon and Tours are examples of how war has often determined the development of Western civilization. (subject development) The basis of Western civilization was probably decided in Greece at the Battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. In this battle, 10,000 Greek soldiers led by Miltiades defeated 100,000 invading Persians under Darius I. Because the Greeks won, Greek ideas about philosophy, science, literature, and politics (such as democracy) matured and became the foundation of Western society.

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